WHAT TYPE OF SOIL DOES TURMERIC REQUIRE TO GROW?
Turmeric and the soil:
Turmeric is a pretty incredible spice it imparts a unique flavour as well as a long range of health benefits. Bright golden hue of the turmeric, gives attractive yellow colour to the dishes, and it has been used since centuries as a natural yellow dye. It is an easy herb to grow, since it can survive any environmental challenge including floods, drought, sunshine, shade, dry soil etc. Turmeric belongs to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), it has large oblong leaves, underground roots and rhizome, along with light yellow coloured beautiful flowers. Turmeric is planted whole year in the tropical region, or at the temperate zone, especially during the summer or spring time. Turmeric is similar to ginger, and native to Asian rainforest. It is a picky herb regarding temperature and the soil.
A few facts about the soil in which turmeric grows:
• Turmeric needs warm soil to overcome dormancy, plenty of rainfall or irrigation and partial shady area for the best yield.
• It needs regular watering, organic matters and loamy soil.
• It is a tropical crop requires a moist and hot climate.
• Turmeric plant requires warm and humid weather, temperature between 21-30 C, more sunshine and less shade. It is better to wet the soil before planting the turmeric rhizome.
• Turmeric survives best in organic matter rich, well drained sandy soil, and in some of the tropical region it has been cultivated throughout the year.
• Turmeric can be grown from sea level and above the sea level approx. more than 1200 m. it can be grown on many types of soils, but it survives best on clay loam soil or well drained sandy soil. Heavy clay or stony type of clay is unsuitable for the turmeric growth, it can also tolerate shade.
• Turmeric best grows in subtropical and the tropical areas can be grown in shades, but open and well exposed to the sun produces fully grown larger rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are selected for the plantation. Turmeric requires lots of humidity or moisturizer in the atmosphere.
• Clayey soil with large amount of organic matter or humus also works best for the turmeric cultivation and well drained sandy soil is another perfect combination for the plantation of turmeric rhizome.
• Soil for the growth of turmeric should be soft and richly manure, sand contain should be little higher, in between sandy loam to loam, but it can be grown on various types of soil such as sandy loam, red soils, clay loam, ashy loam and stiff loam in the rain and well irrigated places.
• Moderate to high temperature for the rhizome growth is better, but turmeric is sensitive to low temperature, and in heavy rainfall areas, it needs no irrigation, and at less rainfall areas, it requires high irrigation.
• Clayey or heavy black soil is not good for the turmeric cultivation since it hampers the growth of rhizome that may affect the yield
Turmeric and the region where it grows:
Turmeric or Curcuma longa is a 1 meter tall perennial herb. Thick and upright rhizome is ringed with the old leaves below and breed through rhizomes. The plant requires proper rainfall and the warm temperature to grow well and it takes approximately 9 months to harvest the fully mature rhizomes. India is known as the origin place and from here it reached China, West Africa, West Africa and then to other countries. India and the Southeast Asia are the biggest commercial market for the turmeric, and Iran, Middle East, Sri Lanka and North Africa are the leading turmeric importers.
Turmeric is very special for India since the Vedic culture where it was used to be a religious part and also a significant medicinal spice, and it is not surprising to know that India is the largest producer and exporter of the turmeric all over the world. China, Sri Lanka, Africa, Australia, West Indies, Indonesia, Peru and other Southeast countries, are the main regions where the turmeric cultivation is taking place presently.
The turmeric cultivating states in India are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Turmeric flourishes well in the loamy, soft, fertile and loose soil and grows in all places, including hilly areas to the land surface, but it is very sensitive to the harsh and cold weather. It requires rich manure; planting is done at the start of summer season though the vegetative propagation, for planting the turmeric, healthy rhizomes with few sprouting are taken.